Canadian Checkers is a variation of International Checkers, played on a 12x12 checkerboard (144 squares) with 30 checkers per side.
Canadian Checkers was created, so the story goes, by a traveler who had recently been in Europe attempted to explain the game to his Canadian friends, but because he couldn't remember the number of squares on the board, so he came up with a board of 12 squares to the side, not realizing that he'd gotten it wrong.
Rules are otherwise the same as International Checkers.
Since then, Canadian Checkers has remained popular in Canada, and is sometimes called Montreal Checkers or Quebec Checkers because it is especially popular in the French-speaking parts of the country.
The Association québécoise des joueurs de dames web site has additional information about the history of Canadian Checkers (they also report that the game is played in Sri Lanka and the Dominican Republic).
See also: Other Checkers Variants